WHEN 17 October 2020
TIME 12:00pm - 8:00pm
HKUST Virtual Information Day for Undergraduate Admissions is scheduled on October 17 (Saturday) from 12 NN to 8 PM (Hong Kong time). Themed “Dare to Dream, Ready to Achieve”, this online event offers you the opportunity to learn more about our admissions activities and life at HKUST.
Below are the highlights you can look forward to at our Virtual Information Day:
- Have individualized consultation with our Admissions representatives.
- Join our live admissions talks and student-sharing sessions, and get answers to your questions straight from our HKUST faculty, admission officers and students.
- Visit our virtual booths and receive information materials on your Department or programs of interest.
- Watch videos featuring the student life and community that define HKUST.
- Explore the university through our Campus 360 virtual tour.
Students, parents and teachers are welcome to join! Do not miss the opportunity to learn more about the world-leading undergraduate programs at the world’s top young university.
Please visit https://join.ust.hk/vinfoday for details and registration.
Undergraduate Recruitment and Admissions Office
HKUST’s emphases on science and technology disciplines does not deter artistic talents from pursuing their studies and interests in creative endeavors. The University offers a wide range of scholarships to honor students also for their outstanding non-academic achievements.
For Exodus SIT, one of eight recipients of the Tin Ka Ping Scholarship (Arts), HKUST’s coastal, suburban location not only is a beautiful university to pursue his undergraduate studies, but is also strategic to pursue his greatest interest - stargazing.
Read another related article: Picture Perfect Balance for Student Life
During his four years majoring in Mathematics, Exodus led the Student Astronomy Club, strived to teach popular science on social media, and actively participated in international astronomy organizations.
But the astronomy buff isn’t only into science, he is also a music lover who plays multiple instruments. Last summer, in combining his two interests, he sent a Cantonese song called “Deep Sky Objects” that he composed to the edge of outer space through a music player mounted on a high-altitude balloon.
The title of the song refers to the stars that can only be seen in dark skies. “I wrote the song to tell people that we have to protect the night sky from excessive light for us to see stars in the clear sky,” he says.
“I always try to find new ways to inspire people to learn more about astronomy and science in general. Since I play music, I thought I’d try and merge the two,” he says. “It turns out music is a wonderful vehicle for STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics) education.”
His “out of this world” achievements and “out of the box” creativity earned him the Arts Scholarship. Tin Ka Ping Scholarship was offered for the first time last year to encourage students to broaden their exposure, unleash their potentials and chase dreams.
Exodus says the Scholarship not only recognizes students’ artistic achievements, but a vivid demonstration of the University’s effort in helping students attain all-round development. “Science or arts, it goes back to the heart of education. In fact, in the old days, Renaissance astronomists had to be well-versed in the arts, philosophy, and science.”
Read another related article: Keeping Eyes On the Target
The Arts Scholarship is one of many other non-academic scholarships the University has set up to attract freshmen with diverse talents. One of which is Diversity Scholarship, for students who are “making substantial contribution to and impact on the student body or society at large”, among other criteria.
Alexis YIP, a Global China Studies graduate of 2020, was a recipient of the Diversity Scholarship for her dedication to the establishment of Rainbow Bird, the first LGBTQ+ support group established at the University, with two other students when she was in Year 2. The idea was to raise awareness about LGBTQ-related issues and provide peer emotional and social support to HKUST community members who are concerned about their sexual and gender identity.
“We formed the group because we felt students needed the support. We wanted to let everyone at the University know ‘you are safe and free to speak your mind here’,” she recalls. She also set up an art exhibition to break down stereotypes about LGBTQ people, reflecting her commitment to the University’s core values of Inclusiveness, Diversity, and Respect.
Besides the Diversity Scholarship, Alexis was also awarded last year the Stephen Cheong Kam-chuen Medal for Distinguished Service to the Student Body, which recognizes students who best exemplify the qualities of caring, constructive, and dedicated leadership during studies.
“I think of true inclusivity as people seeing each other as fellow human beings and not treat some people differently based on race, sexual orientation, disability, or mental capability,” she says. “I’m hopeful we are going in the right direction in creating an inclusive environment.”
Don’t miss the opportunity to have your achievement being recognized like Exodus and Alexis! Check out the list of scholarships available for all students here.
By Prof. Jason Chan, Assistant Professor of Science Education in the Department of Chemistry
Resurgence of COVID-19 cases in Hong Kong once again left us all worrying about our safety in the midst of the global pandemic. Laboratory tests for the coronavirus is our essential frontline defence to identify infected persons for treatments and isolation. In this article, let’s take a look at the science behind how testing for the novel coronavirus is carried out.
To receive testing, a deep throat saliva sample will be collected and sent to the laboratory for screening to see whether it contained the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The screening test is based on One-step Reverse Transcription Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). To appreciate how the test works, we need to break it down into smaller parts.
1. Reverse Transcription (RT)
Our genetic information is stored and encoded in the sequence of four bases (A, T, C, G) on a polymer chain called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Different stretches of these bases would encode for amino acid sequences of our proteins.
When our body needs to manufacture a certain protein, it would start by making a copy of the genetic codes to use as the transient storage. The cell chooses to write this transient copy in RNA (ribonucleic acid). The RNA copy of the gene is known as messenger RNA (mRNA). This process of forming mRNA from the DNA is known as transcription.
RNA viruses use RNA instead of DNA to store their genetic information. Some of them use their viral RNA directly as mRNA inside a host cell(such as SARS-CoV-2), while others (such as HIV viruses) convert their RNA into DNA once they enter a host cell to allow them to insert their viral sequences into the host’s DNA genome and trick the host to make copies of the virus. This process of making a DNA copy from RNA is the reversal of transcription, known as reverse transcription. RNA viruses have an enzyme called reverse transcriptase that carries out this reaction and the DNA produced from the RNA in this way is called complementary DNA (cDNA). cDNA is needed for the next step, PCR, as the template material.
2. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
The PCR reaction produces millions of copies of a target segment of DNA from even a single copy. This amplification of DNA sequence can provide scientists with sufficient amounts of DNA materials allowing them to study and work with them, such as to check if a match is present with a viral sequence.
The PCR reaction mixture contains at least these key components:
- a template (the original DNA material from which copies are made)
- a heat-stable DNA polymerase (an enzyme to make DNA copies)
- two short DNA pieces called primers (to mark the start and end of the target section)
- the substrates for making new DNA chains (dNTPs)
- a magnesium salt (Mg2+ is a co-factor for the polymerase)
- buffers (to maintain optimal pH for the enzyme).
This mixture is placed into a small plastic tube and into a thermocycler that would subject the mixture to cycles of the two key temperatures: 95 oC (3 sec) and 55 oC (30 sec).
At 95 oC, the template, in our case, the double-stranded cDNA from reverse transcription step would separate into two single strands. This step is called denaturation.
Then upon cooling to 55 oC, two DNA primers which are specific to SARS-CoV-2 sequences would now try and find complementary sequence to pair up with. If the cDNA from the virus is present, they will find the sequence and bind with it. This step is called annealing. Once the primers annealed with the correct sequence, DNA polymerase enzymes would also build new DNA copies during this period. This step is called extension. After this step, we would end up with two DNA strands from only one that was started with.
When the temperature is returned to 95 oC for the next cycle, the extension would stop as the newly formed double-stranded DNAs separate into single strands. They will be ready to act as templates when they hit 55 oC.
With each cycle being repeated, the number of DNA strands present would be doubled, such that after 45 cycles, there will be up to 245 copies of the target the DNA present.
3. Real-time or Quantitative PCR (qPCR)
One inconvenience for the usual form of PCR is there’s no way to know if the reactions are working well until all cycles are completed and you run a test to check the products. Scientists developed a modified version of PCR that allowed them to monitor the PCR reaction in real time as copies are being made. This is called real-time PCR or quantitative PCR. This is achieved by adding a DNA probe that has complementary sequence to a short region within the target gene. This probe contains two features: a reporter fluorescent dye (FAM) capping one end and a quencher unit (BHQ1) at the other end. When both ends are attached together on the probe, the quencher prevents the fluorescent dye from glowing and giving any signals.
During the annealing step, the probe would bind onto the template strand and the polymerase would eventually reach that position during chain extension. At this point, the polymerase would cleave off the fluorescent reporter from the probe, and fluorescence can be observed under UV light. Measuring the intensity of fluorescence signal gives us a way to tell if the PCR is going well within the tubes.
4. One-step RT-qPCR
Mucus samples collected from the deep throat of patients suspected of infection may contain the coronavirus and the viral RNA can be detected by a RT-qPCR reaction.
The first step is to convert the RNA in the viruses into cDNA by reverse transcription. The cDNA is then used for qPCR reaction in the next step.
Traditionally, one would have to extract the cDNA from reverse transcription (RT) before adding that into the qPCR reaction mixture. This two-step procedure is slow and tedious. In one-step RT-qPCR, these two steps have been combined into a one-pot reaction, which increased efficiency greatly. Temperature alone can control RT or qPCR steps.
In this article, we described the original protocol developed by CDC. Improved procedures have since been developed that would provide higher sensitivity (e.g. SYBR® Green probes).
5. Control experiments
The reliability of COVID-19 tests is of paramount importance. After all, no one would want to be falsely diagnosed with it (called false positive). On the other hand, it would pose a great danger to the public if the infected were mis-diagnosed as negative (called false-negative).
RT-qPCR tests are not fail-proof and it is possible to mess up at the various stages of the test. To prevent errors from creeping in, a set of control experiments are included to ensure each stage of the test is working as planned.
The first stage is the extraction of nucleic acids from the patient’s specimen. To check this has been done well, a human specimen control sample is included in the test kit. Both of these samples are needed to be tested positive for the presence of a common human gene (RNase P gene)./p>
Next, a sample of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid sequences are included in the test kit. They are used as positive controls. These control samples need to be tested positive to ensure the RT-qPCR is functioning properly. Additionally, a negative control is also done that contains no biological sample and that should give negative results to all the tests.
A unanimous confirmation is only given when a patient’s sample is tested positive for not one, but three segments of sequences that are specific to SARS-CoV-2 and all the control experiments showed their expected results.
Let us not forget to thank all the laboratory workers for their hard work in providing us with reliable screening tests! Should you feel unwell with even the slightest symptoms of COVID-19, you should arrange for a screening test at a private or government clinic at the earliest instance!
An international research team co-led by the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, and the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO) has discovered a mechanism that explains why patients of gliomas – a common and aggressive type of brain tumors, would develop chemo-resistance, potentially allowing early identification of drug-resistant brain cancer patients.
At present, the main treatment for glioma is a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and the chemotherapy agent temozolomide (TMZ). This type of treatment can usually prolong patients’ overall survival time. However, most of them would suffer a relapse and some would become resistant to TMZ.
Read more about relevant research:
HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing
To understand why, the research team at the Wang Genomics Lab, led by Prof. WANG Jiguang, Assistant Professor at HKUST’s Division of Life Science and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, computationally analyzed a large cohort of the TMZ-treated recurrent tumors consisting of both publicly available cases and those collected by the team led by Prof. JIANG Tao from the Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, and found that there were translocations of chromosome 10 in some of these recurrent tumors. The team at CNIO validated the biological function of the genetic rearrangement using cancer cell lines and animal models.
The translocations significantly promoted the expression of a gene called MGMT, which repairs the main TMZ-induced DNA damage in cancer cells, causing treatment failure. The study has also found that such translocation only present in recurrent tumors, indicating that the resistance may occur as a consequence to the treatment itself.
“We hope the discovery of this mechanism would help develop a method for early detection of drug resistance and assist doctors in deciding whether the patient should continue be treated with TMZ,” said Prof. Wang. “While it’s true that other drug options for gliomas are currently very limited, I hope this discovery could help develop a rapid test for chemo-resistance, so precious time could be saved for patients who may otherwise be undergoing ineffective treatment.”
Dr. Massimo SQUATRITO, who led the team at CNIO, added that the next step would be to identify novel treatment intervention for TMZ-resistant patients.
The study was recently published in top scientific journal Nature Communications.
Find out more on other works of Prof. Wang’s:
HKUST Researchers Discover Mutation Route That Helps Find New Therapeutic Lead for Deadly Brain Cancer Patients
Achieving top scores of 5** in seven subjects in Hong Kong’s Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) examination, Katherine LAI Man-Wai was unsurprisingly accepted by two international elite universities. But Katherine chose to study the International Research Enrichment (IRE) Program at HKUST. What led Katherine to opt for IRE Program to attain her goal of research career in science?
Another IRE student Dicky WONG Tak-Hin has been undertaking a research internship at the pioneering research university ETH Zurich since February. Dicky follows the world-renowned organic chemist Prof. Erick CARREIRA to conduct research into cancer drugs. What has driven him to devote to organic chemistry research? With already three years of experience in studying IRE Program and in leading-edge international research, how does Dicky think about scientific research? Read this article to learn more:
The IRE Program Director cum Associate Dean of Science, Prof. LEUNG Pak-Wo, was also interviewed. He precisely described the distinctive features of IRE Program, and also offered valuable and practical advice to students who want to explore science at tertiary education.
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Message from Prof. Tim Leung to DSE students
Hi, DSE students, I am Prof. Tim Leung from HKUST. While you are waiting for the release of DSE results, I would like to let you know more about the School of Science and some features of our undergraduate education.
There are several ways you can learn about HKUST. The easiest way is definitely through the ranking. It would be more important to know the rankings of different SCIENCE disciplines. We have only four departments and one division within the School of Science. They are Chemistry, Life Science, Mathematics, Physics and a newly developed Department of Ocean Science. Clearly, we are not doing everything. But whatever we do, we want to be the best. Because we are small, we are able to concentrate our resources on these fields. Therefore, we are ranked very high not only in Hong Kong, but also in the world. I am highlighting several subjects in the slideshow. Many of our subjects are ranked number 1 in Hong Kong and almost all our departments and divisions are ranked in the top 50 in the world. In case you want to know more about our cutting-edge technology and about science, HKUST is definitely your TOP choice.
Another way to know more about HKUST School of Science is through our research. Let me quote some examples to illustrate our excellence in the fields of scientific research and recent development. We have Prof. TANG Benzhong in the Department of Chemistry, a distinguished scholar who won many prestigious prizes. In the Department of Physics, we have several very nice professors. One of them is Prof. WANG Yi. His research is on cosmology. We also have another professor in the Physics Department doing very excellent research in cosmology and astronomy. We have Prof. George SMOOT with us. He won the Nobel Prize in 2006. We actually have a full-time Nobel Prize winner teaching and doing research on our campus.
Although we do not have a medical school, we have professors from different departments doing researches in medicine. Our former Dean Prof. Nancy YIP is doing Alzheimer's disease research. She received a nationwide research lab at HKUST. Meanwhile, we developed different devices to test COVID-19. Don’t think it was developed by professors from the Life Science Division. In fact, that equipment was developed by a professor in the Physics Department. That’s an example showing that HKUST encourages interdisciplinary research. The university encourages different professors to talk to each other, so as to explore different research fields in order to make a bigger impact.
We know that some of you may worry about what you can do with a science degree after graduation. We have collected these career prospects from previous years. Around 25% of our graduates will continue with a graduate degree. Some might get a master or a PhD offer from overseas. A science degree can easily open the world to you. With a science degree, you can easily apply to many postgraduate degrees in the world. For those who want to concentrate on a career immediately, we see graduates in different types of companies and different types of disciplines. Of course, the education sector is still one major choice for our students, but you can obviously go into the business field, the IT sector and engineering. Do not limit your career path by the major that you are doing as an undergraduate.
If you think HKUST is the best university for you to pursue a science degree, please be reminded to put our undergraduate programs in JUPAS Band A choices - the JUPAS catalogue number for Science (Group A) Program is JS5102 and for Science (Group B) Program the number is JS5103.
Join HKUST, one of the top universities in Asia, where academicians gather, educators inspire, creative minds thrive and young leader's bloom. You will grow in this vibrant and exciting community and you will fly high when you leave. I hope to see you at our campus very soon.
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The Mathematics and Economics (MAEC) Program is jointly offered by the School of Science and the School of Business and Management. The program is very unique, it combines both modern economic theories with mathematical skills. The broad-based curriculum will provide you with training in actuarial science, quantitative finance as well as risk management.
Graduates with an interdisciplinary degree are equipped with knowledge and skills of banking and finance professions and with a sufficient academic background for entry into advanced/professional degree programs in economics, financial mathematics, statistics, and other business-related fields. Recent graduates have been admitted into PhD/Master's programs at leading universities in the world.
If you are the JUPAS applicant and interested in joining us, please note that the JUPAS catalogue number for MAEC is JS5813. You may also consider getting into the Science (Group A) Program (JS5102) or any of the business program at HKUST first. After completing the first year of study, you may choose to major in MAEC via the major selection exercise.
For details, please visit the website: https://maec.ust.hk/
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The Biotechnology and Business (BIBU) Program is jointly offered by the School of Science and the School of Business and Management. It aims at nurturing students with a hybrid interest in both biotechnology applications and business operations. The program covers various domains in science and business, such as Recombinant DNA Technology, Aquaculture Biotechnology, Marketing, Operations Management, Biotechnology Management, Biotechnology Entrepreneurship and Business Operations, etc.
If you would like to apply for BIBU Program through JUPAS, please note that its JUPAS catalogue number is JS5811. To be qualified for admission, JUPAS applicants need to have studied either Biology or Chemistry. For students without HKDSE Biology or Chemistry, you can still consider getting admitted to our Science (Group B) Program (JS5103) or any Business School programs of HKUST. Upon completion of the first year of study, you can then opt for majoring in BIBU.
For details, please visit the website: https://bibu.ust.hk/
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Researchers from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) discovered a novel molecular mechanism that controls the delivery of a key protein in planar cell polarity (PCP) – an important process in our body that regulates cell growth and cell movement, providing useful guidance on the development of new drugs for cancer treatment.
PCP is a biological process critical for tissue development and organ function. Defects in PCP could lead to illnesses such as neurological disorder, skeletal abnormalities or congenital heart disease. Even worse, cancer cells can hijack PCP to promote their own growth and expansion.
To offer new direction for more effective therapeutics, a team led by Prof. GUO Yusong, Assistant Professor of Division of Life Science in the School of Science at HKUST, unraveled how a key protein in PCP called Frizzled-6, was transported from within the cell to the cell surface where Frizzled-6 regulates PCP. Understanding the molecular mechanism behind this transportation process meant scientists can now find a way to block transportation of Frizzled-6 and shut down the PCP process if it is hijacked by cancer cells, thereby hindering cancer progression.
Read more about relevant research:
HKUST Researchers Discover Mutation Route That Helps Find New Therapeutic Lead for Deadly Brain Cancer Patients
Similar to logistics and delivery services, newly produced PCP proteins - just like manufactured goods, need to be processed in plants called endoplasmic reticulum within the cell, where they are folded, modified and packaged. The packed protein would then be delivered through a COPII machinery which produces vehicles that send the protein to Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus is a distribution center within the cell where proteins are packaged into specific transport vehicles, or vesicles, to be delivered to their specific destinations, in this case the cell surface, before proteins can start regulating the PCP process.
In this research, Prof Guo found a special region in Frizzled-6 - namely a polybasic motif, which interacts with SAR1A - a key component of COPII. Blocking the interaction between SAR1A and Frizzled-6 can bring the packaging and delivery to a halt, which in theory should be effective in hindering cancer metastasis.
“It has been known that PCP plays important role in regulating cancer’s growth, but the molecular mechanism that regulates the transport of PCP proteins was largely unclear,” Prof. Guo said. “Our study provides important insight in guiding the rational design of inhibitors to inhibit the cell surface delivery process, and offers a novel therapeutic strategy to downregulate PCP signaling for cancer treatment.”
The findings were recently published in scientific journal Journal of Biological Chemistry. This work was done in collaboration with Prof. JIANG Liwen at the School of Life Sciences of the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Prof. YAN Yan at the Division of Life Science of HKUST. Watch Video
Find out more on other works of Prof. Guo's:
HKUST Researchers Co-Discover a Novel Function of an Enzyme Offering Insight Into the Pathology of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia
To view the Chinese article of an exclusive interview with CHEM Chair Prof. Benzhong TANG, who shared how “aggregation-induced emission” (AIE) can help infertile couples, please click here.
The research team of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) has recently made important progress in the field of new materials. Combining the characteristics of two-dimensional materials and topological materials, the team has for the first time discovered a universal generation mechanism of new materials with "type-II" Dirac cones. Many extraordinary properties of the material are realized in experiments, which addressed the key issue that the material could only be obtained sporadically under stringent limits. This mechanism can guide the preparation of new two-dimensional materials that have specific directional responses to external signals such as electric fields, magnetic fields, light waves, sound waves, etc., and will provide valuable applications for modern electronic communications, quantum computing, optical communications, and even sound insulation and noise reduction materials.
As a typical representative of two-dimensional materials, since its discovery in 2004, graphene has been regarded as one of the greatest material discoveries in the 21st century. As the thinnest, strongest and most thermally conductive "super material" in the world today, graphene has been widely used in transistors, biosensors and batteries, and its discovery led to the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. On the other hand, topological materials, because of the existence of extraordinary properties such as zero-dissipative edge transport, are considered to be the cornerstones of the development of future electronic devices, and their discovery led to the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics. In fact, graphene is also a topological material, and its extraordinary properties are mostly derived from its topological "Dirac cones". However, the "Dirac cones" in graphene belong to the "type-I" Dirac cones of the theoretical predictions. The more unique "type-II" Dirac cones in the theoretical predictions, because of their strongly directional responses to external signals that the type-I Dirac cones do not have, will bring many more possibilities to the development and applications of electronic devices. However, so far, the "Dirac cone of the second kind" can only be found sporadically in some materials, lacking a systematic generation mechanism.
To address this critical issue, the research team led by Prof. WEN Weijia and Dr. WU Xiaoxiao, from the Department of Physics, for the first time, discovered and successfully implemented the systematic generation mechanism of new two-dimensional materials with type-II Dirac cones based on the relevant theories of two-dimensional materials and topological materials, using the band-folding mechanism (a material-independent, universal principle for periodic lattices). Due to its unique topological bands, its response to external signals is extremely directional, so the two-dimensional materials with type-II Dirac cones have important academic and application values for the designs of high-precision detecting devices of external signals, such as electric fields, magnetic fields, light waves, and sound waves. The systematic design and material independence of this scheme also help to relax the precision requirements for circuit designs, making the design of corresponding electronic products easier and more flexible. The team used acoustic field scanning techniques to directly observe the type-II Dirac cone in acoustics, as well as many of its properties that were only proposed in theories previously.
The success of this experimental study has opened up a new field of researches and applications of two-dimensional materials and topological materials, and brought many more possibilities for the future applications of the new materials. The findings of this study have been published in the renowned journal Physical Review Letters.
Click here to watch the video of Ventilated Metamaterial Absorber
The ventilated sound absorbers developed by Prof. Wen’s group based on acoustic metamaterials. The ventilated sound absorbers can simultaneously achieve high-performance sound absorption and air flow ventilation, which is important for noise reduction applications in the environment with free air flows, such as air conditioners, exhaust hoods, and ducts.
"Our findings of the deterministic scheme for type-II Dirac points could profoundly broaden application prospects on fronts such as 5G communications, optical computing such as quantum computing and noise reduction. Our team plans to apply the experimental results to electronic devices such as dedicated chips, new touch control materials, filter modules, wireless transmission and biosensors.” said Prof. Wen, “Also, type-II DPs observed in acoustic waves suggest viable new materials for sound barriers, providing potential solutions for high-efficiency soundproofing walls. While we improve the performance of acoustic metamaterials, we will seek to continuously expand their applications in aspects ranging from low-frequency sound absorption, noise reduction in ventilation systems, intelligent active noise cancelling, traffic noise abatement to architectural acoustics. We also hope that these materials can be truly industrialized.”
Long engaged in researching the field of advanced materials, Prof. Wen and his team have made a range of key achievements in the basic and applied research of new materials science. In 2014, he was awarded second-class 2014 State Natural Science Award (SNSA) for the project on "Structural and Physical Mechanism Investigation for Giant Electrorheological Fluid".